Behind the design | The Healthier Option for High Heels

High heels – they are a style of shoe many women love to wear, although often our feet and legs will protest!

Academics have been studying the effects of high heel shoe wearing for decades. In addition to potentially making our feet sore, high heels may contribute to pain and dysfunction from the feet right up to the lower back due to changes in joint and soft tissue loads, muscle activity and walking pattern 1-6.

We’re not here to debate the potential negative effects of high heel shoes – we know they are not great for your feet.

But we’re also not here to tell you to stop wearing heels – life is too short to not wear styles you love!

Instead, we got to work and developed our unique Podiatrist designed forefoot support curves in our open toe high heel footbeds – to offer a healthier, more comfortable high heel option.

Keep scrolling to learn more

High Heels

HOW WE HAVE ADDRESSED SOME KEY ISSUES TO HELP PREVENT OR ALLEVIATE PAIN CAUSED BY HIGH HEELS.

High Heels

HOW WE HAVE ADDRESSED SOME KEY ISSUES TO HELP PREVENT
OR ALLEVIATE PAIN CAUSED BY HIGH HEELS.

1

Why do high heels hurt?

2

Support and cushioning where it is needed - the forefoot!

3

How high is 'too high'?

4

Let's talk 'arch support'
in high heels

1. Why do high heels hurt the balls of my feet?

We have all experienced that pain under the balls of our feet from wearing high heel shoes. But why do high heels result in this forefoot pain that doesn’t occur when wearing flat shoes?

When we wear shoes with a high heel, our foot is placed in a plantar flexed position (in this context, simply meaning standing on ‘tip toes’)7-10. To keep your balance in this position, your centre of mass (body weight) needs to shift forward7, 8, 11, 12. This leads to increased pressure under the forefoot, particularly the inner side of the forefoot and the base of the big toe8, 10, 13-15.

What’s unique about our high heel footbed design is that it provides extra cushioning in these areas under the forefoot and is specially shaped with the aim to help pressure distribution. Keep reading below to learn more about the support footbed found in our high heels!

2. Support and cushioning where it's needed in a high heel - the forefoot!

Our built-in high heel support footbed found in our ‘open toe’ high heels has been designed to support and cushion where it is needed
– under the forefoot.

Our design goals are to:

HELP DISTRIBUTE FOREFOOT PRESSURE USING STRATEGIC CURVES

The shape of our footbed is one of a kind - unique to FRANKiE4 - featuring our soft convex curve design.  

The soft gentle curvature is designed with the aim to help distribute pressure more evenly across the forefoot, aiming to help reduce high pressure points.

The soft convex curve was designed to help the metatarsal heads (the bones within forefoot) to feel less loaded. The key is not only our unique curves, but also the materials and varying densities we use in our dual and triple density footbeds.

We use more cushioning under the first toe joint as evidence shows that wearing high heel shoes causes an increase in pressure under this area 8, 10, 13-15. This biased cushioning is where it is most needed when the foot is placed into a high heel position – under the ball of the foot.

PROVIDE CUSHIONING AND COMFORT USING A CLEVER COMBINATION OF MATERIALS

Studies have demonstrated positive effects in the use of forefoot padding in high heeled shoes, finding that they reduced peak pressures and increased comfort16. The properties of the materials used in forefoot padding are also important, as this affects the shock absorption capabilities16. While some materials are better at reducing peak pressures, others contribute to greater perceived comfort16 and for this reason, it has been suggested that using a combination of materials for pressure reduction, comfort and cushioning is ideal16.

The research tells us that using a total contact insert or full length footbed can improve pressure distribution in the foot, reduce ground reaction forces and ultimately increase comfort and stability in high heel shoes10, 15, 17-19.

Our high heel footbed is triple density (3 different materials with varying softness) to provide a combination of support and cushioning with a gentle arch slope to help encourage better distribution of pressure under the foot, to promote a feeling of stability and contribute to that soft feeling under foot.

3. How high is 'too high'?

Discomfort and pressure under the forefoot generally increase with heel height38, 2, 29. Even a small increase in heel height (around 3cm to 4cm) can increase peak pressure in the medial forefoot (inner side of the forefoot) by up to 40%29 and increase knee joint loads by up to 30%12.

At FRANKiE4 we understand that all women (and feet!) are different, and our range of low, mid, and high heels reflects that, giving women a choice of heel height in which they feel both comfortable and fabulous!

YOU KNOW THAT UNSTABLE FEELING WHEN WEARING HIGH HEELS?

Higher heel height changes the way that we walk and how our muscles function (see ‘more information’ below for more details), from the feet and ankles all the way up to the lower back. When the foot is in a high heel shoe, the ankle in particular is placed in an unstable position9. This explains why it is not just the forefoot where we might feel the pain of high heel shoe wearing.

Optimising stability is thus important in our designs, and heel base size is very important.

Smaller heel base size increases pressure in the forefoot and has been reported to feel less stable than walking in a shoe with a wider heel base20. Whereas, a broader base of support has been shown to redistribute the plantar pressures, improving comfort and contributing to a greater feeling of stability20, 21.

This is why FRANKiE4 open toe heels have been designed with a stable heel base that allows the heel to take its fair share of the load. Secure straps around the foot and ankle are also a feature of our designs, ensuring you feel as secure as possible in your chosen heel height.

3. How high is 'too high'?

Discomfort and pressure under the forefoot generally increase with heel height8, 10, 22. Even a small increase in heel height (around 3cm to 4cm) can increase peak pressure in the medial forefoot (inner side of the forefoot) by up to 40%8 and increase knee joint loads by up to 30%1.

Whilst , we transparently note that high heels aren't good for your feet, at least with our range women can opt for a more comfortable option of heels without having to feel they compromise on their style.

Our range of low, mid, and high heels gives women a choice of heel height to tick their boxes.

FRANKiE4 HIGH HEELS

4. Let's talk 'arch support' in high heels

The position of your foot when wearing a high heel shoe is like being in the ‘push-off phase’ of walking, with the toes at a flexed angle (dorsiflexed). This naturally creates a tightness in the supporting structures under the arch of the foot (called the Windlass Mechanism)23. You can bend your toes back or stand on tippy toes to see this ‘Windlass effect’ for yourself. Notice how a high arch forms - generally speaking, this is how high heels position your feet.

In this raised heel position, (for most) the foot is excessively supinated (rolled outward) increasing the arch position and reducing stability in the ankle 9, 12.

For this reason a substantial amount of arch support is usually not required in a high heel shoe. It's why our FRANKiE4 Sole HeroTM High Heel Footbed is designed to provide a very gentle arch contour – not too much, not too little.

The footbed in our heeled styles aims to provide a better foundation for the foot when it is placed in this high heel angle. Our gentle arch support, and triple density materials help promote comfort and a feeling of stability.

4. Let's talk 'arch support' in high heels

The position of your foot when wearing a high heel shoe is like being in the ‘push-off phase’ of walking, with the toes at a flexed angle (dorsiflexed). This naturally creates a tightness in the supporting structures under the arch of the foot (called the Windlass Mechanism)23. You can bend your toes back or stand on tippy toes to see this ‘Windlass effect’ for yourself. Notice how a high arch forms - generally speaking, this is how high heels position your feet.

In this raised heel position, (for most) the foot is excessively supinated (rolled outward) increasing the arch position and reducing stability in the ankle 9, 12.

For this reason a substantial amount of arch support is usually not required in a high heel shoe. It's why our FRANKiE4 Sole HeroTM High Heel Footbed is designed to provide a very gentle arch contour – not too much, not too little.

The footbed in our heeled styles aims to provide a better foundation for the foot when it is placed in this high heel angle. Our gentle arch support, and triple density materials help promote comfort and a feeling of stability.

Nicole Merrick
Physiotherapist
B. Podiatry, B. Physiotherapy

Caroline McCulloch
Founder
B. Podiatry, B. Physiotherapy

Sara Taylor
Podiatrist

B. Podiatry (Hons)

Nicole Merrick
Physiotherapist
B.HlthSc, M.PhysiotherapyPrac

Caroline McCulloch
Founder
B. Podiatry, B. Physiotherapy

Sara Taylor
Podiatrist

B. Podiatry (Hons)

Dr Sheree Hurn | Podiatrist

Dr Sheree Hurn, Senior Lecturer in Podiatry at Queensland University of Technology (QUT)

"review here"

Copywriting support by Dr Sheree Hurn
PhD | Podiatrist & Clinical Researcher

Dr Annette Davis

PODIATRIST

Adjunct Senior Research Fellow,
Monash University.

I am fearless and exhausted at the same time. I am a mother, a sister, a daughter, Podiatrist and a director in one of the largest health services in Australia. And I speak for all of us when I say I need to look and feel my best to manage all that. I have a lot of shoes but, like most women, there are only a few pairs that I reach for when I know I have a demanding day on my feet.

My FRANKiE4 ABi Heels are on high rotation as they provide comfort and style and most importantly, regardless of what I am doing, I am the boss when I’m wearing them.

The balance is perfect as I don’t feel pressure at my forefoot. There is an even distribution of load between the heel and forefoot which means I’m not in a hurry to rip them off my feet at the end of the day. They see me through from the morning school drop off through to the evening catch up with the ladies and a quiet G&T.

The heel counter with the adjustable strap provides support for my narrow heel and the leather is divine. The heel height is perfect and perfectly balanced with no tottering in these babies. The forefoot shape is broad with tapering to the toes so that the heel still looks stylish whilst easily and comfortably accommodating all forefoot profiles including lumps, bumps and other sins.

I know some of you avoid strappy heels because the straps never seem to be in the right place or your bits poke out. I get it, my feet are like that too. However, the straps on these heels are easily manoeuvrable and the leather is very forgiving.

As a Melbourne girl who likes to wear black, black with a touch of black, it’s nice to have a hint of cognac-coloured heel with black speckles for something a bit different.

"These sandals are comfortable and beautiful, just like us."—Annette

Dr Annette Davis | Podiatrist
Adjunct Senior Research Fellow, Monash University.

I am fearless and exhausted at the same time. I am a mother, a sister, a daughter, Podiatrist and a director in one of the largest health services in Australia. And I speak for all of us when I say I need to look and feel my best to manage all that. I have a lot of shoes but, like most women, there are only a few pairs that I reach for when I know I have a demanding day on my feet.

My FRANKiE4 ABi Heels are on high rotation as they provide comfort and style and most importantly, regardless of what I am doing, I am the boss when I’m wearing them.

The balance is perfect as I don’t feel pressure at my forefoot. There is an even distribution of load between the heel and forefoot which means I’m not in a hurry to rip them off my feet at the end of the day. They see me through from the morning school drop off through to the evening catch up with the ladies and a quiet G&T.

The heel counter with the adjustable strap provides support for my narrow heel and the leather is divine. The heel height is perfect and perfectly balanced with no tottering in these babies. The forefoot shape is broad with tapering to the toes so that the heel still looks stylish whilst easily and comfortably accommodating all forefoot profiles including lumps, bumps and other sins.

I know some of you avoid strappy heels because the straps never seem to be in the right place or your bits poke out. I get it, my feet are like that too. However, the straps on these heels are easily manoeuvrable and the leather is very forgiving.

As a Melbourne girl who likes to wear black, black with a touch of black, it’s nice to have a hint of cognac-coloured heel with black speckles for something a bit different.

"These sandals are comfortable and beautiful, just like us."—Annette

MORE ON HIGH HEELS

By understanding the effects high heels have on the body gives us the insight to drive unique design features that help mitigate the discomfort caused by heels.

We've laid out more information below on the effects of high heels. It’s important to remember that many of the deleterious effects outlined above and below relate to long-term use of high heels. Nonetheless, with hundreds of verified buyer reviews, our high heels are offering a healthier option to help women enjoy high heel comfort.

The Effects of High Heels on the Foot and Ankle

When looking at a foot positioned in a high heel, it’s not hard to imagine how pain might be generated throughout the foot and ankle.

The literature tells us that wearing high heels changes the position of the foot and increases plantar pressure7-12. When the foot is in a high heel shoe, there are also changes to the position and stability of the foot and ankle joints9, 12. With the toes pressed into a dorsiflexed position in a high heel shoe, the Windlass Mechanism occurs and the arch is lifted23. The ankle is also placed in a plantar flexed, inverted and internally rotated position9. Without appropriate support, this contributes to increased pressure in the forefoot8, 10, 13-15 and reduced stability12, 18, 24, potentially leading to pain and an increased risk of injury24-26.

To offer a healthier option for high heels, our designs aim to decrease pressure points under the forefoot, to minimise instability at the foot and ankle and increase overall comfort under foot.

The Effects of High Heels on the Calf Muscles and Ankle Joint

Our soft tissues adapt to repetitive loading over time and both structural and functional changes to the muscle and tendons around the ankle may occur due to prolonged wear of high heels27. Long term high heel wearing contributes to shortening of the calf muscles, along with increased size and stiffness of the Achilles tendon, potentially contributing to reduced ankle mobility3, 27. Habitual high heel wearers may also be more vulnerable to muscle fatigue, particularly in the calf muscles, leading to an imbalance of muscle activation patterns and abnormal distribution of pressures24.

The position of the foot in a high heel is significantly different to that of a flat. There is an increase in plantarflexion of the talocrural joint (ankle joint) and supination of the subtalar joint (just below the ankle joint) when the foot is position in a high heeled shoe11, 24. These altered joint positions require changes to muscle activity to stabilise the joints11. Increased activity in the soleus muscle of the calf and the peroneus longus muscle (position on the outside of the calf) have been demonstrated in high heel gait3, 11 and may also contribute to calf muscle fatigue.

There are also changes to the ligaments which support the ankle joint and contribute to stability5. The anterior talofibular ligament (ATFL) is an important stabiliser of the ankle joint and the one most commonly injured in ankle sprains 5. The strain and tension on the ATFL increases in high heeled shoes to almost 6 times that of flat shoes. This suggests an increased risk of ankle injuries in high heel shoe wearers5. This is supported by epidemiological research which suggests injury rates from high heels to be as high as around 18 per 100,000 women, with most injuries occurring as sprains and strains to the foot and ankle26.

We pride ourselves on crafting a healthier option for women who love high-heels. If a day on your feet, or a long walk is on the agenda, why not take a look at our one-of-a-kind flat styles, then swap back into your FRANKiE4 heels when high heel height is on the agenda. To put simply, sharing the time you spend in high heels with flatter styles is sensible advice.

The Effects of High Heels on the Knee Joint

Walking in high heeled shoes changes the biomechanics of the lower limb and with it, the loading pattern at each joint also changes1, 28. So, what does this mean for the knee?

During high heeled gait, peak power and joint work production are higher at the knee compared to wearing flats28. Step length, step width and walking velocity all experience negative changes in high heeled shoes, along with changes to joint range of motion and power generation throughout gait29. Joint reaction forces and knee flexion angles are increased as heel height increases, with the medial (inner side) knee and the patellofemoral joint (knee cap joint) absorbing considerably more load in a high heeled shoe1, 3, 6. In fact, patellofemoral joint stress can increase by almost 90% when wearing high heels compared to that of flat shoes6.

Greater compressive and mechanical load at these areas are thought to be related to biomechanical changes in high heels, such as reduced step length3. This chronic compressive loading over the long term may have deleterious effects on musculoskeletal health, potentially increasing the risk of medial knee osteoarthritis and patellofemoral pain3, 6.

Women have loved wearing high heels for hundreds of years now, which isn't surprising considering there is no denying how a pair of high heels can make us feel. It's why, as a brand, it doesn't make sense to tell women not to wear high heels considering our goal is to improve the quality of life of women.

It's why, with hundreds of verified buyer reviews, our heels offer a healthier option of high heels with our unique supportive footbed. We also give ladies the choice of a range of comfortable heel heights to suit every occasion, as well as flats to rest those hard-working legs on more casual days.

The Effects of High Heels on the Lower Back

Many women spend their working week walking and standing in high heel shoes. High heeled shoes are a known contributor to foot pain, with up to 50% of women complaining of recurrent nontraumatic foot pain30. But it is not only the feet that suffer. Almost 60% of women who regularly wear high heels have reported lower back pain31 related to their use.

When positioned in a high heeled shoe, our centre of mass moves superiorly (higher) and further forward than when wearing flats14, 31, 32. This changes the position of our lower spine and the lumbosacral angle14, 32, creating a less stable posture and potentially increasing compressive forces at the lower spine31. Associated changes to lower back muscle activity are then required to maintain postural alignment, increasing the work of the lower back extensor muscles14, 31, 32. This may explain the discomfort and fatigue experienced by habituated high heel shoe wearers31, though the long-term effects of high heels on the lower spine are not really known.

We pride ourselves on crafting a healthier option for women who love high-heels. If you are suffering Lower Back pain why not take a look at our one-of-a-kind flat styles,  designed to support you from the ground up.

Relevance and Reflection

Relevance and Reflection

As outlined above the negative effects of wearing high heels are well documented. At FRANKiE4 we believe that the design of the shoe should be able to mitigate some of these unfortunate effects of high heel wearing on women’s feet.

FRANKiE4 heels have been designed with key features to support and cushion the forefoot, and to help distribute load through the arch and heel. The wide, stable heel base, and secure fastening straps around the foot and ankle help mitigate potential ankle instability due to the plantarflexed position of the ankle. It’s also important to remember that many of the deleterious effects outlined above relate to long-term use of high heels. At FRANKiE4 we aim to give ladies the choice of a range of comfortable heel heights to suit every occasion, as well as flats to rest those hard-working legs on more casual days!

Disclaimer: The contributors to this article make every effort to make sure the information provided is accurate. All content is created for informational purposes only. The information regarding our products is not intended to replace professional or medical advice relevant to your circumstances. Discontinue use if you experience discomfort and seek advice from your health care professional.

This article contains copyrighted material. Reproduction and distribution of this article without written permission from FRANKiE4 footwear is prohibited. ©2021 FRANKiE4 footwear. All rights reserved.

5-Star High Heel Reviews

At FRANKiE4 we are thrilled to be able to offer an alternative high heel, with over 68,000 verified buyer reviews of FRANKiE4 high heels reporting that our heels feel secure and comfortable with great cushioning and support.

Read below the feedback from our customers
who have good experiences with FRANKiE4 high heels.


"Such a comfortable pair of heels— the right height to elongate the leg, and enough comfort to wear all day."

ALICE L.

Verified Buyer


"These are the first high heels that I have ever put on and partied all night in. Game changer!! I love my FRANKiE4s."

Monique D.

Verified Buyer


"I have all sorts of problems with my flat feet and sore back hence I never wear high heels. Not any more! These shoes are a MUST if you’ve always wanted to wear heels but can’t. From the moment I put them on my feet felt like they were walking on cushions. Wore them for 6 hours straight and even managed to dance in them!"

Crissy C.

Verified Buyer

5-Star High Heel Reviews

At FRANKiE4 we are thrilled to be able to offer an alternative high heel, with over 68,000 verified buyer reviews of FRANKiE4 high heels reporting that our heels feel secure and comfortable with great cushioning and support.

Read below the feedback from our customers
who have good experiences with FRANKiE4 high heels.


"I have all sorts of problems with my flat feet and sore back hence I never wear high heels. Not any more! These shoes are a MUST if you’ve always wanted to wear heels but can’t. From the moment I put them on my feet felt like they were walking on cushions. Wore them for 6 hours straight and even managed to dance in them!"

Crissy C.

Verified Buyer

"Such a comfortable pair of heels— the right height to elongate the leg, and enough comfort to wear all day."

ALICE L.

Verified Buyer

"These are the first high heels that I have ever put on and partied all night in. Game changer!! I love my FRANKiE4s."

Monique D.

Verified Buyer

References

1. Barkema DD, Derrick TR, Martin PE. Heel height affects lower extremity frontal plane joint moments during walking. Gait Posture 2012; 35(3):483-488.
2. Pratihast M, Al-Ani A, Chai R, Su S, Naik G. Changes in lower limb muscle synchronisation during walking on high-heeled shoes. Healthc Technol Lett 2018; 5(6):236-238.
3. Sinclair J, Brooks D, Butters B. Effects of different heel heights on lower extremity joint loading in experienced and in-experienced users: a musculoskeletal simulation analysis. Sport Sciences for Health 2019; 15(1):237-248.
4. Wiedemeijer MM, Otten E. Effects of high heeled shoes on gait. A review. Gait Posture 2018; 61:423-430.
5. Yu J, Wong DW, Zhang H, Luo ZP, Zhang M. The influence of high-heeled shoes on strain and tension force of the anterior talofibular ligament and plantar fascia during balanced standing and walking. Med Eng Phys 2016; 38(10):1152-1156.
6. Ho KY, Blanchette MG, Powers CM. The influence of heel height on patellofemoral joint kinetics during walking. Gait Posture 2012; 36(2):271-275.
7. Ebbeling C, Hamill, J., Crussemeyer, J. Lower extremity mechanics and energy cost of walking in high-heeled shoes. Journal of Orthopaedic & Sports Physical Therapy 1994; 19:190-201.
8. Speksnijder CM, vd Munckhof RJH, Moonen SAFCM, Walenkamp GHIM. The higher the heel the higher the forefoot-pressure in ten healthy women. The Foot 2005; 15(1):17-21.
9. Wang C, Geng X, Wang S, Ma X, Wang X, Huang J, Zhang C, Chen L, Yang J, Li J et al. The impact of high-heeled shoes on ankle complex during walking in young women-In vivo kinematic study based on 3D to 2D registration technique. J Electromyogr Kinesiol 2016; 28:7-16.
10. Hong W, Lee, Y., Chen, H., Pei, Y., Wu, C. Influence of heel height and shoe insert on comfort perception and biomechanical performance of young female adults during walking. Foot and Ankle International 2005; 26(12):1042-1048.
11. Stefanshyn D, Nigg, B., Fisher, V., O'Flynn, B., Liu, W. The influence of high-heeled shoes on kinematics, kinetics and muscle EMG of normal female gait. Journal of Applied Biomechanics 2000; 16:309-319.
12. Wan FKW, Yick KL, Yu WWM. Effects of heel height and high-heel experience on foot stability during quiet standing. Gait Posture 2019; 68:252-257.
13. Shang J, Geng X, Wang C, Chen L, Zhang C, Huang J, Wang X, Yan A, Ma X. Influences of high-heeled shoe parameters on gait cycle, center of pressure trajectory, and plantar pressure in young females during treadmill walking. J Orthop Surg (Hong Kong) 2020; 28(2):2309499020921978.
14. Cha YJ. Analysis of Differences in the Degree of Biomechanical Adaptation according to Habituation to Different Heel Heights. ScientificWorldJournal 2020; 2020:1854313.
15. Franciosa P, Gerbino S, Lanzotti A, Silvestri L. Improving comfort of shoe sole through experiments based on CAD-FEM modeling. Med Eng Phys 2013; 35(1):36-46.
16. Luximon Y, Yu, J., Zhang, M. A comparison of metatarsal pads on pressure redistribution in high heeled shoes. Research Journal of Textile and Apparel 2014; 18(2).
17. Cong Y, Lee W, Zhang M. Regional plantar foot pressure distributions on high-heeled shoes-shank curve effects. Acta Mechanica Sinica 2011; 27(6):1091-1097.
18. Mishra E, Jena S, Bhoi C, Arunachalam T, Panda SK. Effect of high heel gait on hip and knee-ankle-foot rollover characteristics while walking over inclined surfaces - A pilot study. Foot (Edinb) 2019; 40:8-13.
19. Perez-Cortes A, Silva-Moreno, A., Alvarez-Camacho, M., Hernandez-Trejo, M., Sotelo-Barroso, F. Plantar pressure analysis of inserts in high heeled shoes. Proceedings at XXIV Congress of the International Society of Biomechanics 2013.
20. Luximon Y, Cong Y, Luximon A, Zhang M. Effects of heel base size, walking speed, and slope angle on center of pressure trajectory and plantar pressure when wearing high-heeled shoes. Hum Mov Sci 2015; 41:307-319.
21. Guo L, Lin, C., Yang, C., Hou, Y., Liu, H., Wu, W., Lin, H. Effect on plantar pressure distribution with wearing different base size of high-heel shoes during walking and slow runnning. Journal of Mechanics in Medicine and Biology 2012; 12(1).
22. Zhang X, Li B. Influence of in-shoe heel lifts on plantar pressure and center of pressure in the medial-lateral direction during walking. Gait Posture 2014; 39(4):1012-1016.
23. Griffin NL, Miller CE, Schmitt D, D'Aout K. Understanding the evolution of the windlass mechanism of the human foot from comparative anatomy: Insights, obstacles, and future directions. Am J Phys Anthropol 2015; 156(1):1-10.
24. Gefen A, Megido-Ravid, M., Itzchak, Y., Arcan, M. Analysis of muscular fatigue and foot stability during high-heeled gait. Gait & Posture 2002; 15:26-63.
25. Cronin NJ. The effects of high heeled shoes on female gait: a review. J Electromyogr Kinesiol 2014; 24(2):258-263.
26. Moore JX, Lambert B, Jenkins GP, McGwin G, Jr. Epidemiology of High-Heel Shoe Injuries in U.S. Women: 2002 to 2012. J Foot Ankle Surg 2015; 54(4):615-619.
27. Csapo R, Maganaris CN, Seynnes OR, Narici MV. On muscle, tendon and high heels. J Exp Biol 2010; 213(Pt 15):2582-2588.
28. Steiner E, Boyer KA. Speed impacts joint power and work while walking in high heeled shoes. Footwear Science 2020; 13(1):19-27.
29. Di Sipio E, Piccinini G, Pecchioli C, Germanotta M, Iacovelli C, Simbolotti C, Cruciani A, Padua L. Walking variations in healthy women wearing high-heeled shoes: Shoe size and heel height effects. Gait Posture 2018; 63:195-201.
30. Chua YP, Tan WJ, Yahya TS, Saw A. Prevalence of nontraumatic foot pain among urban young working women and its contributing factors. Singapore Med J 2013; 54(11):630-633.
31. Lee C, Jeong, E., Freivalds, A. Biomechanical effects of wearing high-heeled shoes. International journal of industrial ergonomics 2001; 28:321-326.
32. Park K, Kim, Y., Chung, Y., Hwang, S. Effects of the height of shoe heels son muscle activation of cervical and lumbar spine in healthy women. The Journal of Physical Therapy Science 2016; 28:956-959.

Founded by Podiatrists, FRANKiE4 is changing the way women experience footwear.

We live to create unique designs that deliver style, innovation and performance — investing in patenting and design registrations to keep our supportive products one-of-a kind.

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